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grind - process WordNet lexicographer files
grind [ -v
] [ -s ] [ -L logfile ] [ -a ] [ -d ] [ -i ] [ -o ] [ -n ] filename
[ filename ... ]
grind() processes WordNet lexicographer files,
producing database files suitable for use with the WordNet search and
interface code and other applications. The syntactic and structural integrity
of the input files is verified. Warnings and errors are reported via stderr
and a run-time log is produced on stdout . A database is generated only
if there are no errors.
Input files correspond to the syntactic
categories implemented in WordNet - noun, verb, adjective and adverb.
Each input lexicographer file consists of a list of synonym sets (synsets
) for one part of speech. Although the basic synset syntax is the same
for all of the parts of speech, some parts of the syntax only apply to
a particular part of speech. See wninput(5WN)
for a description of the
input file format.
Each filename specified is of the form:
pathname is optional and pos is either noun, verb, adj or adv. suffix
may be used to separate groups of synsets into different files, for example
noun.animal and noun.plant . One or more input files, in any combination
of syntactic categories, may be specified. See lexnames(5WN)
for a list
of the lexicographer files used to build the complete WordNet database.
grind() produces the following output files:
|index.pos ||Index file for each syntactic category
|data.pos ||Data file for each syntactic category |
for a description of the database file formats.
Each time grind() is run, any existing database files are overwritten
with the database files generated from the specified input files. If no
input files from a syntactic category are specified, the corresponding
database files are not overwritten.
Senses are generally
ordered from most to least frequently used, with the most common sense
numbered 1 . Frequency of use is determined by the number of times a sense
is tagged in the various semantic concordance texts. Senses that are not
semantically tagged follow the ordered senses in an arbitrary order.
Note that this ordering is only an estimate based on usage in a small
The tagsense_cnt field for each entry in the index.pos files
indicates how many of the senses in the list have been tagged.
file provided with the database lists the number of times each sense
is tagged in the semantic concordances. grind() uses the data from cntlist
to order the senses of each word. When the index .pos files are generated,
the synset_offset s are output in sense number order, with sense 1 first
in the list. Senses with the same number of semantic tags are assigned
unique but consecutive sense numbers. The WordNet OVERVIEW
all senses of the specified word, in all syntactic categories, and indicates
which of the senses are represented in the semantically tagged texts.
- Verify integrity of input without generating database.
generation of warning messages. Usually grind is run with this option
until all syntactic and structural errors are corrected since the warning
messages may make it difficult to spot error messages.
all messages to logfile instead of stderr .
- Generate statistical report
on input files processed.
- Generate distribution of senses by string
length report on input files processed.
- Generate sense index file.
- Order senses using cntlist .
- Generate nominalization (derivational
morphology) links in database.
- Input file of the form described
Exit status is normally 0. Exit status is -1 if non-specific error occurs.
If syntactic or structural errors exist, exit status is number of errors
- pos .*
- lexicographer files to use to build database
- file of combined semantic concordance cntlist files. Used to
assign sense numbers in WordNet database
Please report bugs to
- usage: grind [-v] [-s] [-Llogfile] [-a ] [-d] [-i] [-o] [-n] filename
- Invalid options were specified on the command line.
- No input
- None of the filenames specified were of the appropriate
- n syntactic errors found.
- Syntax errors were found while parsing
the input files.
- n structural errors found.
- Pointer errors were found
that could not be automatically corrected.
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