Table of Contents
wngloss - glossary of terms used in WordNet system
The WordNet Reference Manual consists of Unix-style manual pages divided
into sections as follows:
|Section ||Description |
|1 ||WordNet User
|3 ||WordNet Library Functions |
|5 ||WordNet File Formats |
|7 ||Miscellaneous Information about WordNet |
WordNet system consists of lexicographer files, code to convert these
files into a database, and search routines and interfaces that display
information from the database. The lexicographer files organize nouns,
verbs, adjectives and adverbs into groups of synonyms, and describe relations
between synonym groups. grind(1WN)
converts the lexicographer files into
a database that encodes the relations between the synonym groups. The
different interfaces to the WordNet database utilize a common library
of search routines to display these relations. Note that the lexicographer
files and grind(1WN)
program are not generally distributed.
Information in WordNet is organized around logical groupings
called synsets. Each synset consists of a list of synonymous words or
collocations (eg. "fountain pen" , "take in" ), and pointers that describe
the relations between this synset and other synsets. A word or collocation
may appear in more than one synset, and in more than one part of speech.
The words in a synset are grouped such that they are interchangeable
in some context.
Two kinds of relations are represented by pointers: lexical
and semantic. Lexical relations hold between semantically related word
forms; semantic relations hold between word meanings. These relations
include (but are not limited to) hypernymy/hyponymy (superordinate/subordinate),
antonymy, entailment, and meronymy/holonymy.
Nouns and verbs are organized
into hierarchies based on the hypernymy/hyponymy relation between synsets.
Additional pointers are be used to indicate other relations.
are arranged in clusters containing head synsets and satellite synsets.
Each cluster is organized around antonymous pairs (and occasionally antonymous
triplets). The antonymous pairs (or triplets) are indicated in the head
synsets of a cluster. Most head synsets have one or more satellite synsets,
each of which represents a concept that is similar in meaning to the concept
represented by the head synset. One way to think of the adjective cluster
organization is to visualize a wheel, with a head synset as the hub and
satellite synsets as the spokes. Two or more wheels are logically connected
via antonymy, which can be thought of as an axle between the wheels.
are relational adjectives and do not follow the structure just described.
Pertainyms do not have antonyms; the synset for a pertainym most often
contains only one word or collocation and a lexical pointer to the noun
that the adjective is "pertaining to". Participial adjectives have lexical
pointers to the verbs that they are derived from.
Adverbs are often derived
from adjectives, and sometimes have antonyms; therefore the synset for
an adverb usually contains a lexical pointer to the adjective from which
it is derived.
for a detailed description of the database
files and how the data are represented.
used in the WordNet Reference Manual are unique to the WordNet system.
Other general terms have specific meanings when used in the WordNet documentation.
Definitions for many of these terms are given to help with the interpretation
and understanding of the reference manual, and in the use of the WordNet
In following definitions word is used in place of word or collocation
- adjective cluster
- A group of adjective synsets that are organized around
antonymous pairs or triplets. An adjective cluster contains two or more
head synsets which represent antonymous concepts. Each head synset has
one or more satellite synsets .
- A noun for which adjectives
express values. The noun weight is an attribute, for which the adjectives
light and heavy express values.
- base form
- The base form of a word
or collocation is the form to which inflections are added.
- basic synset
- Syntactically, same as synset . Term is used in wninput(5WN)
explain differences in entering synsets in lexicographer files.
- A collocation in WordNet is a string of two or more words, connected
by spaces or hyphens. Examples are: man-eating shark , blue-collar , depend on
, line of products . In the database files spaces are represented as underscore
(_ ) characters.
- Coordinate terms are nouns or verbs that have
the same hypernym .
- cross-cluster pointer
- A semantic pointer from one
adjective cluster to another.
- derivationally related forms
- Terms in different
syntactic categories that have the same root form and are semantically
- direct antonyms
- A pair of words between which there is an associative
bond resulting from their frequent co-occurrence. In adjective clusters
, direct antonyms appears only in head synsets .
- A topical classification
to which a synset has been linked with a CATEGORY, REGION or USAGE pointer.
- domain term
- A synset belonging to a topical class. A domain term is further
identified as being a CATEGORY_TERM, REGION_TERM or USAGE_TERM.
- A verb X entails Y if X cannot be done unless Y is, or has been,
- exception list
- Morphological transformations for words that are
not regular and therefore cannot be processed in an algorithmic manner.
- Verb senses that similar in meaning and have been manually grouped
- Each synset contains gloss consisting of a definition
and optionally example sentences.
- head synset
- Synset in an adjective cluster
containing at least one word that has a direct antonym .
name of the whole of which the meronym names a part. Y is a holonym
of X if X is a part of Y .
- The generic term used to designate
a whole class of specific instances. Y is a hypernym of X if X is a
(kind of) Y .
- The specific term used to designate a member of
a class. X is a hyponym of Y if X is a (kind of) Y .
- indirect antonym
- An adjective in a satellite synset that does not have a direct antonym
has an indirect antonyms via the direct antonym of the head synset .
- A proper noun that refers to a particular, unique referent (as distinguished
from nouns that refer to classes). This is a specific form of hyponym.
- Lower case ASCII text of word as found in the WordNet database
index files. Usually the base form for a word or collocation.
- A lexical pointer indicates a relation between words in synsets
- lexicographer file
- Files containing the raw data for WordNet
synsets, edited by lexicographers, that are input to the grind program
to generate a WordNet database.
- lexicographer id (lex id)
- A decimal integer
that, when appended onto lemma , uniquely identifies a sense within a
- Having only one sense in a syntactic category.
- The name of a constituent part of, the substance of, or a member
of something. X is a meronym of Y if X is a part of Y .
- part of speech
- WordNet defines "part of speech" as either noun, verb, adjective, or
adverb. Same as syntactic category .
- participial adjective
- An adjective
that is derived from a verb.
- A relational adjective. Adjectives
that are pertainyms are usually defined by such phrases as "of or pertaining
to" and do not have antonyms. A pertainym can point to a noun or another
- Having more than one sense in a syntactic category.
- polysemy count
- Number of senses of a word in a syntactic category, in
- A postnominal adjective occurs only immediately following
the noun that it modifies.
- An adjective that can be used
only in predicate positions. If X is a predicate adjective, it can only
be used in such phrases as "it is X " and never prenominally.
- An adjective that can occur only before the noun that it modifies: it
cannot be used predicatively.
- satellite synset
- Synset in an adjective
cluster representing a concept that is similar in meaning to the concept
represented by its head synset .
- semantic concordance
- A textual corpus
(e.g. the Brown Corpus) and a lexicon (e.g. WordNet) so combined that every
substantive word in the text is linked to its appropriate sense in the
lexicon via a semantic tag .
- semantic tag
- A pointer from a word in a text
file to a specific sense of that word in the WordNet database. A semantic
tag in a semantic concordance is represented by a sense key .
- A semantic pointer indicates a relation between synsets (concepts).
- A meaning of a word in WordNet. Each sense of a word is in a different
- sense key
- Information necessary to find a sense in the WordNet
database. A sense key combines a lemma field and codes for the synset
type, lexicographer id, lexicographer file number, and information about
a satellite's head synset , if required. See senseidx(5WN)
for a description
of the format of a sense key.
- Same as hyponym .
- Same as hypernym .
- A synonym set; a set of words that are interchangeable
in some context without changing the truth value of the preposition in
which they are embedded.
- A verb expressing a specific manner
elaboration of another verb. X is a troponym of Y if to X is to Y in
- unique beginner
- A noun synset with no superordinate .
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